“Time is the fire we burn in.” Despite the fact that we could struggle to quench its unrelenting flame, scientists have attempt to divert its path by isolating small enclosures where time slows to your crawl. Within these chambers the frenetic Brownian dance gets to be a chaperoned waltz, as temperatures approach absolute zero. The interior environment of Lng vehicle cylinder is a world apart, a reminder of your ultimate heat-death that has to befall our universe inside the eons into the future.
For many who attempt to discover truths about the workings from the cell, holding back the floodgates of time is a problem of significant proportions. Scientists are generally interested in very specific cell properties that happen at critical junctions in the lifetime of a cell. Holding these processes at bay while their properties may be exploited is similar to the issue of catching one’s shadow.
Cryogenic freezing of cells has been used as one strategy to the problem in the slow burn. By reduction of temperatures of samples for the glass transition phase of -133°C, the temperature at which all metabolic activity involves a halt, scientists have the ability to seclude moments over time, returning over and over to research that instant in the past.
Not surprisingly, cryogenics has become an essential industry that creates customized products for pretty much every conceivable purpose. From small tabletop apparatus to industrial-scale liquifiers, the marketplace in cryogenics provides mechanical freezers, packing containers, and dewars in every size, shape, and configuration imaginable. By using these a multitude of products to choose from understanding of the ones that are best may elude the average consumer. In order to provide a review of the main producers of cryogenic laboratory supplies several manufacturers will probably be profiled on this page.
Ultra-low lab freezers are some of those things which a lot of people never consider until they quit working. Built to run for years without interruption in service, lab freezers will be the quiet sentinels of the laboratory, keeping a vigilant watch within the researcher’s most prized possessions. Most scientists try to avoid the thought of what might happen if their freezer failed, or they try to erase the memory during the day in the event it did. A career’s amount of samples can be lost within a afternoon– many years of careful collecting and cataloging reduced to mere puddles on the floor. Despite the fact that this sort of scenario looms ominously in the periphery for each researcher’s consciousness, not many are prepared for a day whenever it actually occurs. Manufacturers of ultra-low lab freezers took great pains to make sure that power failures and refrigerant leaks will never compromise one’s samples. They build machines that are intended to be forgotten.
MMR Technologies is definitely the only company that utilizes the Kleemenko cooling cycle in its refrigerators. Although the gas industry provides this system for years, MMR Technologies was the initial company to patent the technology and adapt it for very small, lightweight, and portable freezing systems.
Just how the Kleemenko cycle works is a mixture of compressed gas and liquid is passed down a countercurrent exchanger which is permitted to expand by way of a capillary or throttling valve. Cooling occurs upon expansion, as well as the cool gas passes backup the heat exchanger, precooling the incoming high-pressure gas. More than one liquid-vapor separators could be incorporated inside the cycle in order that the increase of the liquid may be used to precool the vapor (W.A. Little., Presented at ICEC17, Bournemouth, U.K.,July 14-17 1998)
The BIO 120 is a zero-maintenance, low-power-consumption Kleemenko refrigerator that is ideal for storing frozen tissue, cell cultures, organs, and body parts. The system allows the scientist to warm and cool samples uniformly without shocking them, and furthermore, as it has an internal power source it can be used for the transportation of samples from storage facility to look into laboratory. Robert Paugh, product manager for MMR Technologies, was insistent on the need for controlled temperature ramping.
“Being a user you want to understand the minimum temperature and how it gets there,” said Paugh. MMR Technologies’ enhanced control systems and printed thermal record of cooling makes certain that uniform temperatures have already been maintained throughout the cooling process.
Kelvinator Scientific, which is a subsidiary of Frigidaire, provides freezer units for laboratories and pharmacies that are equipped for biological samples at temperatures as a result of -86°C. At temperatures this low animal and plant viruses, bacteria, spores, and bacteriophages may be preserved for long periods. Locking lids are supplied in order to protect samples from accidental contact with ambient temperatures. Adjustable shelving, pullout drawers, and drawer partition inserts are useful for separating different experiments.
NuAire, Inc. credits a great deal of its ultralow freezing capabilities to the heavy-gauge galvanized steel cabinets. The temperature-conducting quality of the material reduces stress on compressors allowing the units to work longer and colder than would certainly be possible. Maintaining temperatures at -152°C the NuAire ultralow freezer is capable of doing holding samples beneath the crystallization point.
In keeping with the Clean Air Act of 1990 for systems using HCFC/HFC refrigerants, NuAire also relies on a special mixture of azeotropic gases which are non-flammable and let on-site recycling. Furthermore, a built in timer cycles the low stage compressor every round the clock, turning it well so the capillary tubing will likely be cleared of ice formation.
So-Low Environmental Equipment Co. features a long tradition of creating ultralow freezers for laboratory applications. The truth is, with 40 years of expertise under its belt, So-Low is among the oldest manufacturers of ultralow temperature freezers in the commercial. Once the Montreal Protocol started the phase away from CFC refrigerants in 1987, So-Low was among the first to make use of Dupont Suva 95, the brand new CFC-free refrigerant that runs cooler and with less pressure than CFCs. As well as its investigation of green refrigerants, So-Low has developed a modern compressor which is designed just for its ultralow freezers.
Forma Scientific offers both mechanical and liquid nitrogen storage systems for preserving samples at ultralow temperatures. The mechanical freezers preserve specimens to -86°C, while Forma’s liquid nitrogen freezers store samples at -133°C. Unlike its competitors’ liquid nitrogen freezers, however, Forma provides square cross-section units as an alternative to the standard cylindrical containers. Each of these cabinets is constructed of cold-rolled steel. Forma’s counterbalanced lids provide easy access, an optional thermal data printer continuously documents all operational functions, along with a storage system adjusts to fit a variety of tube sizes. Forma also provides a patented double door unit that separates lasting from everyday storage.
Revco is probably the largest manufacturers of laboratory freezers using more than 50 years of experience in the business. Revco’s Elite, Value, and Ultima mechanical freezers sustain temperatures from -10°C to as low as -120°C without CFC refrigerants and can be bought in chest, upright, and tabletop models. Its sophisticated Ultima freezers offer automatic electronic systems that constantly adjust conditions to the internal and external environment, correcting for subtle fluctuations in ambient temperature, excessive loading with warm samples, and dirty filters. Additionally, it includes a scrubbing cycle that removes vaporized lubricating oil from your evaporating coils.
Sanyo is manufacturing laboratory and medical freezers for over two decades, starting with its production of the very first -40°C chest freezer in 1974. Sanyo duplicated this achievement with the development of the very first -152°C ultralow temperature freezer in 1991 and additional demonstrated its position by becoming the 1st manufacturer to offer a complete variety of CFC-free medical freezers. Today, Sanyo offers one of the largest selections of ultralow temperature lab freezers now available. Sanyo’s upright and chest freezers are equipped for use in preserving cells, bacteria, spores, pollen, sperm, protozoa, and blood components for academic and industrial research.
The expression dewar, originally used on double walled glass vacuum flasks, is now placed on a variety of insulated vessels designed for upkeep of samples in liquid nitrogen. Depending upon their size, dewars usually rest on the ground or take a seat on tabletops where samples can easily be accessed. As a result of quality of insulation materials, some dewars have maintained critical temperatures provided that 12 months without being regenerated with liquid nitrogen. The normal thermal wall consists of an aluminum or steel sandwich full of polyurethane. The size and configuration of dewars vary to such an extent that a great many companies build custom dewars to order. Many of these companies in addition to their items are reviewed from the following section.
From Alaskan salmon eggs to embryos from Idaho’s chicken farms, MVE makes laboratory freezers for numerous applications. Obviously, animal breeders are only a small amount of its customers. Blood and cell storage as well as organ shipment are an equally large a part of MVE’s business with medical and pharmaceutical applications representing the easiest-growing portion of the niche for the company’s products.
MVE was the 1st company to develop biological freezers capable of maintaining a -190°C environment for any full year without refilling with nitrogen. Since that point MVE has released the entire brand of XLC series liquid and vapor-phase freezers. The XLC liquid nitrogen freezers are capable of handling up to 36,000 vials at temperatures only -195.8°C. The vapor-phase freezers are suited to cells which can be stored at -125°C but could become damaged or discolored at critical temperatures achieved by liquid nitrogen freezers. The vapor-phase freezers are also ideal for storing hazardous materials that may cross-communicate inside a liquid medium, such as contaminated-blood bags that are prone to break open.
Quantum Technology is a worldwide manufacturer and supplier of laboratory freezers with offices in the usa and Germany. Its product line includes everything from compressors and temperature sensors to gas wells and vacuum shrouds.
In accordance with Sean Wolf, product manager for Quantum Technology, a great way his company has been able to remain competitive is as simple as offering on-site service and warranty repair. Another major selling point of Quantum’s refrigeration systems is because they could be custom designed.
Certainly one of Quantum Technology’s most widely used products is really a helium recovery system. Although liquid helium is merely $4 or $5 per liter, in many countries away from America and Europe, the cost of purchasing helium is an issue of concern. That is amongst the main reasons why Quantum Technology makes a competent two-stage and three-stage closed-cycle refrigerator where the helium is retained from the system. The helium from this refrigerator is reliquified to use over and over.
Lab-Line Instruments, designer and manufacturer of dewars for scientific research and recently acquired subsidiary of Barnstead Thermolyne, offers a Thermo-Flask brand of products that include wide-mouth flasks, insulated Thermo-Cups, stainless steel Thermo-Flasks, and enameled steel Thermo-Flasks. Twenty-six different types can be found with capacities from 200 cc to 10 liters, and all these models can be obtained having a 24-month warranty. Other special attributes of the Thermo-Flask collection of products include vented lids in order to avoid pressure build-up, fold-down handles, and borosilicate inner vessels evacuated to deliver coolant retention for samples saved in liquid nitrogen or solid CO2.
Barnstead Thermolyne manufactures the Bio-Cane and Locator Plus cryogenic storage systems, which can be distributed by several companies throughout the us. The Bio-Cane systems can be found in five sizes and present features including super vacuum insulation, ampule cans, a polycarbonate lid, and color-coded canisters for inventory identification. The Locator Plus storage systems can be found in four sizes and have capacities as much as 6,000 vials. Along with several of the standard features present in the Bio-Cane, the Locator provides hanging racks using a gridded box design, audible and visual alarms that warn of low-level conditions, along with an ultrasonic liquid level monitor that eliminates contact with liquid nitrogen and consequently reduces evaporation.
Pope Scientific makes a number of traditional dewar flasks in “cylindrical,” “low form shallow,” and “spherical” styles. All Pope dewars are made from borosilicate glass covered by a protective mesh, and each wide-mouth model has a vented polyethylene stopper to reduce evaporation. Wide-mouth dewars can even be jacketed in aluminum casing for added safety.
Pope Scientific’s narrow-mouth or “constricted-neck” dewars are suitable for temporary storage or transfer applications with holding times in excess of 14 days. Most of these units come designed with the lowest-evaporation stopper, a fully shielded evacuation tip, a weighted base, and protective mesh. Choices for these instruments include fiberglass caddies for carrying or decanting.
Taylor-Wharton International helps make the K Series, XT (Extended Time), HC (High Capacity), and RS (Rack System) dewars which allow the researcher to store vast amounts of semen, embryos, and biological samples at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Each of these units is complemented by their own inventory control system, which is made to maximize the amount of vials which can be safely arranged in to a canister-type storage device. By either immersing samples in liquid nitrogen or suspending them in nitrogen vapor, vials could be maintained at temperatures of -196° C.
Cryogenic Tubes are among the most often used and least considered implements in the researcher’s tool box. Bags of tubes are stuffed into corners and forgotten until they mysteriously run out some day. Then it is time to go shopping. Making decisions about buying cryogenic tubes is often guided by three primary issues, the 1st which concerns the matter of if they are externally or internally threaded. Advocates of externally threaded vials propose that material is trapped within the threads of internally threaded vials, while proponents of your internally threaded sort reason that externally threaded vials tend to be more easily contaminated by accidental contact. Although research has been conducted so as to confirm or refute these claims, these have not been conclusive, and also the debate proceeds.
An additional consideration that comes into account when selecting cryogenic tubes is definitely the material through which they are constructed. While plastic vials are, perhaps, stronger than glass, they take longer to warm which could negatively modify the viability of some cells. Some plastic tubes can be contaminated with releasing fluids during the molding process. However, releasing fluids is easy to remove with the care and attention, and some brands like Axygen are embracing new polished molds that do not require the use of releasing fluids. Glass, alternatively, warms rapidly but is also subject to fracture because of microchannels which could form inside the glass, causing leakage of sample contents, or even violent explosions. Plastic vials will also be susceptible to nitrogen penetration but the potential of explosion is not really as great.
Gasketing has additionally been a challenge of some contention within this industry. Many cryovials have a washer that keeps the interior pressure in the vial from expelling the tube’s contents when it is warmed to ambient conditions. The rapid increase of gas inside the tube is sufficient to force cells and fluid with the lids of numerous non-gasketed cryotubes. Silicon is normally preferred because the best material for insulating caps against leakage. Although rubber is also used, it possesses a tendency to get rid of its elasticity when dropped to freezing temperatures, a challenge that had been demonstrated once the “O” rings around the space shuttle Challenger failed.
Simport Plastics, headquartered in Quebec, provides a large collection of cryotubes and microcentrifuge tubes that you can use at temperatures as low as -190°C. Designed for handling biological samples under freezing conditions for prolonged periods, its Cryovials™ come provided with attached leak proof caps that contain a dual lip along with a silicon washer. A particular ridge on each cap makes handling easier, contributing to one-hand aseptic technique, and color-coded cap inserts along with white marking areas make each vial easily identifiable.
Evergreen Scientific manufactures the CryoSure® model of vials for storing cell cultures, blood/serum specimens, sperm, along with other biological fluids at vapor-phase liquid nitrogen temperatures (-195°C). CryoSure vials can be purchased in 1. ml, 1.5 ml, and 3.5 ml sizes and come in round-bottom and freestanding configurations.
Evergreen also has a wide range of microcentrifuge tubes that range in capacities from 250 µ l to 2. ml. Included in this are polypropylene tubes, which is often used in combination with solvents, alcohols, chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and ketones. These tubes are sterilized using gamma radiation and they are pressure tested in a vacuum chamber to ensure the longevity of its double-sealing screw caps.
Evergreen recently created a new microcentrifuge tube, in cooperation with Washington University Lipid Research Center, to use in lipid fractionation studies. It really is a 1.5 ml polystyrene tube by having an 11 mm high-density polyethylene cap. One of several outstanding highlights of this tube is that it is entirely transparent.
Nalgene® and Nunc™ cryogenic vials include a selection of externally and internally threaded vials from 1. to 5. ml capacities which can be silicone gasketed and guaranteed to be used within a centrifuge. The Nalgene 5000 series vials feature graduations and so are certified to become sterile, noncytotoxic and nonpyrogenic, whilst the System 100 vials are bound to be leakproof in a microcentrifuge as much as 8,000 g and throughout shipment and transport. However, the organization warns that cryotubes improperly sealed in liquid phase can lead to an explosion or biohazard release. Nalgene and Nunc have provided CryoFlex Tubing to avert this contingency.
Wheaton Science Products makes tubes and flasks for up to every eventuality. From serum bottles to mobile phase reservoirs, it provides developed a substantial catalog of items for handling liquid samples. Wheaton’s Cryules® can be found in both plastic and glass. The glass Cryule is constructed from Wheaton-33° low extractable glass that may be hermetically sealed. These are suitable for the preservation of biological materials with liquid nitrogen at low temperatures. Wheaton’s plastic Cryules are autoclavable and, like each of the glass Cryules, can withstand temperatures between -196°C and 121°C. Wheaton Vacules are vials that are constructed for lyophilization and freeze-drying. Their heavy-wall construction makes them exceptionally durable, and they could be flame sealed or stored by using a wide array of stoppers and caps.
Corning Incorporated Science Products Division makes a number of polypropylene vials that are equipped for use at temperatures to -196°C. These come equipped with various features including color-coded caps, silicon and rubber washers for secure sealing of contents, and easy-to-read graduations for partial volumes. Self-standing and locking features are available with selected styles. All of Corning’s vials are supplied sterile and certified as nonpyrogenic.
Axygen Scientific Inc. makes microcentrifuge and screw-cap tubes for storing samples at subfreezing temperatures that happen to be developed with 99.9 percent pure polypropylene with no mineral fillers or heavy metals. Foreign substances are added only at the request in the customer, and Axygen’s colorants contain no metallic ions like iron, chromium, or nickel which can be typical constituents of dyes. All the company’s vials is designed to snap closed within a locked position for centrifugation, and special piercing ports make the insertion of syringes easier for collecting samples. Axygen’s “O” ring closure system comes with a patent-pending alignment system that guarantees that this microtube is aligned from the centrifuge rotor being re-spun without disturbing the pelletized sediment.
Sarstedt Inc. has an extensive catalog of microcentrifuge tubes that are suitable for both freezing at ultralow temperatures and centrifugation that come in an assortment of sizes, shapes, and colors. The person has the choice of choosing from many different externally threaded microtubes with attached or enclosed screw caps that could be colored for identification. All of Sarstedt’s tubes are sterile, and also the polypropylene material through which they are constructed enables them to endure subfreezing temperatures along with temperatures and pressures inside an autoclave. One of many areas that Sarstedt has paid particular awareness of in developing its brand of products is the need for cryogenic vials which contain reaction buffers and enzymes for PCR applications.
Stockwell Scientific manufacturers CRYO-LOK® Cryogenic Vials and screw- cap microcentrifuge tubes for storage and transport at ultralow temperatures. These range in capacity from .5 ml to 3.5 ml and can be purchased in conical and skirted configurations. Stockwell’s microcentrifuge tubes could be exposed to a centrifugal force of 20,000 g and each one of its O-ring sealed tubes is sterilized.
Storage inventory systems really are a critical a part of any long term protocol for cryogenic preservation. Once cryogenic vials are stored at subfreezing temperatures they could undergo changes which make them difficult to keep trace. Labels could become brittle, breaking and separating from vials, and improperly stored tubes may be dropped into liquid nitrogen making retrieval difficult and costly. Probably the most popular options for containing samples is the canister and cane. Applying this technique, a series of vials are enclosed in just a long aluminum shaft that may be submerged within liquid nitrogen. The canes can be manipulated for small sample volumes and protect vials from damage which could occur from bumping or agitation. For greater storage capacities, however, the drawer technique is usually preferred. Although drawer systems often expose more samples to warming during exchange, the accessibility from the system reduces exposure time for you to ambient temperatures resulting in less evaporation in the freezer, and also decreases the researcher’s exposure to possibly damaging cryogens.
Forma Scientific makes rack inventory systems for liquid-phase and vapor-phase storage. These racks are created to optimize the amount of space for storage afforded by Forma’s liquid nitrogen containers. The conventional inventory configuration is actually a cardboard or steel construction arranged into arrowhead or square designs. Vertical inventory systems enable the user to organize as many as 82 racks at maximum density.
TetraLink International concentrates on making storage boxes and rack systems for cryogenic storage. Intended for the widest possible applicability, its freezer storage systems can be bought in numerous sizes, shapes, and colors to put nearly every freezer. Clear lids allow contents to become viewed without opening the containers, and they are often adjusted in particular models to accommodate tubes of varying heights. Round holes provide spacing with clearance for snap-seal and safe-lock caps. TetraLink’s Racksys storage system uses sliding drawers that have storage racks for holding as much as 267 microtubes. These drawers may be installed in every upright freezer or refrigerator.
Nalgene and Nunc storage systems comprise some plastic or chipboard containers for microcentrifuge tubes and glass vials. These are generally keyed in order to avoid misalignment and give temperature resistance from -196°C to 121°C.
Nalgene® CryoBox Racks provide steel retainer systems compatible with all Nalgene and Nunc storage boxes. They feature vertical and horizontal storage for boxes that maintain each box separately for convenient retrieval.
National Labnet provides freezer racks and storage boxes to have an increasing variety of sample containers. As high-throughput experiments require greater reserves of reagents, Cryogenic ISO Tank Container has responded with boxes and racks that are constructed for numerous examples of both well plates and cryovials. They also have introduced boxes with telescoping lids so that you can satisfy requirements for single box containers with vials of differing sizes.
Custom Biogenic Systems is amongst the largest manufacturers of rack systems for cryogenic storage containers. In fact, most of its merchandise is sold as standard accessories with some of the major producers of laboratory freezers. Its pie-shaped racks are constructed from steel and will include a choice of cardboard, aluminum, or steel boxes with 1/2 inch or 5/8″ cell dividers. These systems can be bought as individual units or as complete racks to use in vapor- phase or liquid-phase storage.
Probably, the cryogenic products one buys today is definitely the same ones that will be used for years to come. Any purchase made today may work for ten years. Ultimately, researchers buying CNG Trailer are not just buying products for themselves, they may be buying for their successors. The customer should think about what might 46dexkpky over the course of years if their samples become degraded or contaminated because of improper storage. A little money that had been saved initially by scrimping on vials or freezers may not appear to be the best downside when valuable samples are lost. Despite the safeguards built in to a large number of devices many product managers recommend making regular maintenance on these products important. Appointing a permanent position that is accountable for the cryogenic safety of the laboratory’s biological collection is amongst the best ways to assure the integrity of the samples.